A wild-caught bird is subjected to a wide variety of stressful situations from the time of capture to its arrival at its new home. Edwards, T.A. Increasingly the birds being exported from the wild are babies removed as nestlings out of trees and hand-fed in quarantine stations. We use vertical nesting boxes sized 12″x12″x24″ deep for our smaller Amazons and 15″x15″x30″ deep for the larger Yellow Head and Nape Amazons. When the dominate pair take over the nest box or chase away the other birds, remove the others and leave the bonded pair. This Amazon’s Mexican habitat is under constant change by man and this along with illegal trade has made it a threatened species. The easiest birds to switch onto a formulated diet are recently imported parrots as they have not yet developed a taste for the sweet domestically grown fruits and vegetables. Not that common in captivity compared to other Orcocephala Amazons. Of course, I am generalizing and there are always exceptions. Restricted flight and ease of obtaining food make energy considerations important in evaluating captive diets. If disease is present in carrier birds, it is activated by poor nutrition, over-crowding, sudden environmental change or other stress. The main problem with these suspended cages is that aviculturists tend to make them too small for the birds to exercise. Yellow-naped Amazon. Since many Double Yellows were exported legally by Mexico there are pet birds around that could be used for breeding. When accompanied by sudden changes in temperature, or by moving, crowding, unusual noises, changes in the feed programme, or other management changes, the birds resistance is weakened. The Aquisition, Husbandry and Breeding of Common Amazons, Quality Assurance and Food Safety Guarantee. To maintain the birds welfare and reduce psychological stress, the preferences and aversions of each species should be taken into account when designing a species specific artificial environment. Much of this time is spent allopreening. Although bathing facilities or sprinkler systems and “natural” fluorescent or sodium lights can stimulate this, we are going to move some of our breeding stock into outdoor flights during the summer months. Thus no nails or screws are used. Yellow-Headed Amazon Wikipedia article -, 2. To be a successful Amazon breeder modern avicultural techniques must be utilized including safe, surgical sexing of birds, formulated diets or supplements, disease prevention using screening tests, vaccines for Pacheco’s and tetracyclines against psittacosis, efficient safe housing, banding and micro-chip identification, and computer assisted record keeping of breeding stock. The Lilac Crown is in the worst situation out of all the species listed here. The Argentinean sub-species, preferably called the Yellow-Winged (A. aestiva xanthopteryx), is, in many cases, difficult to differentiate from the nominate sub-species (A.a.aestiva) found in Brazil because of so much variation in head and wing coloration. A longer, narrow flight space is preferable to one of more cubical dimension, in order to afford the birds ample flying space, since vigorous and frequent wing exercise is most certainly conductive to producing healthy and sturdy bodies. It is also hunted and persecuted in Belize because it is a crop pest. Mexico, the main range state, stopped exporting parrots more than a decade ago so the only source for breeding stock is from pet birds and other breeders. Some birds like to splash around in their dish of water, but most prefer to be “rained” on. But this method enables the aviculturist to get compatible pairs that are most likely to nest earlier. The first thing to do is to move all the surviving sick birds to another location for isolation and supportive care. Pacheco’s disease is a highly fatal, contagious disease of psittacine birds. When buying any Amazon stay away from feather chewers as the few we have make poor breeders. The door entering the bird room should be tight fitting, have a viewing window, and adequate width for the passage of cages. Acyclovir (Zovirax – Welcome) a drug to treat human genital herpes was administered both orally via the tube fed food and as an injectable (intramuscular). The defense of territory is perhaps another key component in stimulating reproduction in male Amazons. It is a shame to see this species discounted in price and not held with more esteem by breeders in the Southern USA. They are adaptable to captivity like domestically raised birds but may have the diseases often associated with wild-caught birds. The equipment required for endoscopy includes a light source, fibre-optic light guide, a small diameter endoscope and anaesthetic gas machine all of which can cost at least $5,000. As with most Amazons, they raise their young well until we pull them at a few weeks of age. Based on previous experiences I believe we may have yellow-napped and/or yellow-winged Amazon carriers who are intermittent shedders of some host adapted virus. This paper will examine those species. Brood Size: 2-7 eggs hatch in 17-31 days; young leave the nest in 4-8 weeks.