It is based on universality of laws and emphasizes the existence of "common reality on which people can agree" (Newman & Benz, 1998, p. 2). Additionally, researchers work as part of rather than detached from the research where "knowledge is jointly constructed between researchers and their collaborators" (Dunne et al, 2005, p. 15). The introduction by Socrates of the “Socratic method” of questioning (see dialectic) began a tradition in which reasoning and the search for reasons that might justify beliefs, judgments, and actions was (and remains) fundamental; such questioning in turn eventually gave rise to the view that education should encourage in all students and persons, to the greatest extent possible, the pursuit of the life of reason. That is to say, participants are considered active knowers who understand and reflect on the social phenomena. He also emphasized the fostering of moral virtue and the development of character; his emphasis on virtue and his insistence that virtues develop in the context of community-guided practice—and that the rights and interests of individual citizens do not always outweigh those of the community—are reflected in contemporary interest in “virtue theory” in ethics and “communitarianism” in political philosophy. Reality is part of the mind even if entities are external because they are created and given meaning through our perceptions. Ever since, positivism which dominated the bulk of social research until the 1960s has emerged as a reaction to metaphysics and theology (Carr & Kemmis, 1986; Cohen et al, 2000). Philosophy and Theory in Educational Research: Writing in the margin explores the practices of reading and writing in educational philosophy and theory. Empirically speaking, quantitative research aims at theory testing. 2000, p. 4). One of its great contributions is bridging the gap between theory and practice in educational research. This is still ambiguous in so far as a number of forms and approaches of critical theory exist (Carr & Kemmis, 1986). Identification of research problem The process of philosophical study starts with the identification of appropriate theme for study. On the other hand, critical theory is transformative in the sense that itâ seeks to "transform the society and individuals to social democracy" (Cohen et al, 2000, p. 28). Second, once the researcher is involved in a research undertaking, it is no more natural as posited by interpretivists. Educators are providing course work in their curricula that addresses philosophi-cal research and are encouraging, or at least tolerating, philosophical theses and dissertations. In addition, it is impossible to reach agreement and cast generalisations over a social behaviour as humans have different perceptions. (In this respect it is like other areas of “applied” philosophy, such as the philosophy of law, the philosophy of science, and the philosophy of medicine, including bioethics.) "The Philosophical Foundations of Educational Research: a Beginnerâs Guide.". Reliability, on the other hand, refers to the "consistency of a measure" (Bryman, 1992, p. 29). Other major philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas, Augustine, Thomas Hobbes, René Descartes, John Locke, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Bertrand Russell, and, more recently, R.S. So, a valid research is one that portrays the ideas of the oppressed to be empowered. These practical issues in turn have implications for a variety of long-standing philosophical problems in epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and political philosophy. This way, it is assumed that human behaviour would be objectively investigated via causation, causality and outcomes could successfully be predicted, explained and generalized. They need to "bracket out their value systems and discover what is, and their accounts as a result correspond with that reality in a straight-forward way" (Scott& Usher, 2011, p. 147).